## Part 2: Draw shapes

Second challenge! We shall draw shapes circles, squares that are solid, hollow at different positions of the screen.

To do that we have to create a rectangle using pygame and give it the position of the rectangle, as in where we want to draw it on the screen.

The left and the top most point of the screen is considered to be (0,0). The rectangle placed anywhere on the screen, will be described by its distance horizontally (x-axis) and vertically (y-axis) from the left and top points. Post that the width and length of the rectangle need to be provided.

Pardon, the messy handwriting.  The red dot is the position (0,0) on the SCREEN and the (left,top) of the rectangle that we are going to draw is (100,100) and the length and width of the rectangle are (20,20).  Hence the position of the rectangle is (100,100,20,20).

```LEFT = 100
TOP = 100
LENGTH = 20
WIDTH = 20
RECTCOORD = [LEFT, TOP, LENGTH, WIDTH]
rect1 = pygame.Rect(RECTCOORD)```

Now, how do we describe the color of the shape? The first colour TV brought in the technology of mixing three light beams of the primary colours Red, Green and Blue.
Zero intensity of the three RGB lights gives BLACK and full intensity of all the three RGB lights is WHITE. A mixture with any intensities in between gives wide spread of colours.

In a computer program, this mixing of colours is achieved by providing a list (a bag) of three numbers specifying the intensity of RGB colours. The number is 0 is no intensity and 255 is the highest intensity.

For those who want to delve deeper, this is a 8 bit number and the maximum number that can be stored is 2^8-1 = 256-1 = 255 (since we are starting from 0, range = 0-255)

BLACK = (0,0,0)
WHITE = (255,255,255)
RED = (255,0,0)
GREEN = (0,255,0)
BLUE = (0,0,255)

And now we can try, (255, 230, 200) and check what colour this might be.

```RED = 255
YELLOW = 230
BLUE = 200
COLOR = (RED, YELLOW, BLUE)
```

Now finally, to draw the shape on the SCREEN. We need to pass some parameters to the “draw” function that we will call. In layman terms, we need to give certain information to the “draw” command that we use from pygame to draw shapes.

• We use the screen handle we got from calling SCREEN = pygame.display.set_mode(SCREENSIZE) earlier.
• COLOR and rect1  from above.
• Last one specifies the thickness of the shape. 0 is for drawing a solid shape.
```pygame.draw.rect(SCREEN, COLOR, rect1, 2)
```

Now after pygame.draw, type a ‘.’ and press CTRL-SPACE and see what other shapes we can draw with pygame and what inputs (parameters) it needs.

We shall draw another rectangle and circle at other positions.

```LEFT = 20
TOP = 20
RECTCOORD = [LEFT, TOP, LENGTH, WIDTH]
rect2 = pygame.Rect(RECTCOORD)
#hollow
pygame.draw.rect(SCREEN, COLOR, rect2, 0)

LEFT = 200
TOP = 200
```

Now for these items to show up on the pygame screen, we should use

```pygame.display.update()
```

Additionally, if we make changes to the screen inside the loop, the update will also be inside the loop.

Now for the whole code.

```import pygame
import sys
import os

#instructions to windows to center the game window in the center of
#the screen, which it might ignore
#Import statements are to enable the code to use the functions from the library
import pygame
import sys
import os

#instructions to windows to center the game window in the center of
#the screen, which it might ignore
os.environ["SDL_VIDEO_CENTERED"] = "1"

#initialize pygame
pygame.init()

#500, 500 = width and height of the square shaped window on which the game can be played
#putting [500,500] in square brackets means that it is a list.
#A list is a data structure. In layman terms, it is a bag in which you can
#store the width and height of the rectangle together.

#"screen", is the handle that you always use to draw on the window. Hence remember the name

#The width and height ideally should be variables and assigned values in the
#beginning of the code. If later you need to use the same [500,500] again or
#want to change it to [300, 550], you can do it by changing the value of the
#variable at one location, instead of changing the number 500 to 300 at multiple
#places.
#And ideally these are constants, whose values you dont change during in the code
#Hence the variables are written in capital letters
#There is no "const" keyword in python (keywords are special words recognised by the
#programming language like "for", "if", "while" etc)

#Not the right way
#screen = pygame.display.set_mode([500, 500])

#Right way
SCREENWIDTH = 500
SCREENHEIGHT = 500
SCREENSIZE = [SCREENWIDTH, SCREENHEIGHT]
SCREEN = pygame.display.set_mode(SCREENSIZE)

#caption for the game
pygame.display.set_caption("My first game in pygame")

#arc, circle, line, polygon etc
#The left top corner of the screen is considered to be the position for (0,0)
#With respect to that we give the left, top coordinates
LEFT = 100
TOP = 100
LENGTH = 20
WIDTH = 20
RECTCOORD = [LEFT, TOP, LENGTH, WIDTH]
rect1 = pygame.Rect(RECTCOORD)

RED = 255
YELLOW = 230
BLUE = 200
COLOR = (RED, YELLOW, BLUE)

#0 is fully thick
#2 is little, try 10, which is equivalent to 0
pygame.draw.rect(SCREEN, COLOR, rect1, 2)

LEFT = 20
TOP = 20
RECTCOORD = [LEFT, TOP, LENGTH, WIDTH]
rect2 = pygame.Rect(RECTCOORD)
#hollow
pygame.draw.rect(SCREEN, COLOR, rect2, 0)

LEFT = 200
TOP = 200

#pygame.display.flip()
#update is more powerful, has the capacity to update only the rect

#pygame.display.update(rect1)
#pygame.display.update(rect2)

#Update without a parameter is same as flip
#pygame.display.update()
pygame.display.update()

#The while loop, which keeps running for ever (becaue we have "while True")
#In computer systems, there is always an event loop always checking for user inputs
#(It keeps checking for key presses on the key board and whenever for example, "caps lock"
#is preseed all the letters you trype are printed in upper case.

#Similarly, an event loop which runs the code over and over again for ever, till
#you choose to quit is required in pygame.
#In that loop, you check for all events in the bag of events, like key presses,quit etc
#and take the right action

#here we shall first handle the "quit" event, when the "X" button is pressed on the
#pygame screen
#when it is pressed we want to exit pygame and close the window (sys.exit())
while True:
for events in pygame.event.get():
if events.type == pygame.QUIT:
pygame.quit()
#till sys.exit() is not mentioned, it will not end the program
#but pygame has quit, hence the for loop to get events from pygame
#will fail and hence will get an error if program does not exit
sys.exit()
#Here for any commands inside the for loop

#beware of the positioning of this line. It should be inside the while
#for all the commands that need to be executed inside the while
```

Next challenge, we shall draw multiple shapes randomly on the pygame screen. Are you ready?